Maghemite (Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3) is a member of the family of iron oxides. It has the same spinel ferrite structure as magnetite and is also ferrimagnetic.

Maghemite can be considered as an Fe(II)-deficient magnetite with formula [5] where represents a vacancy, A indicates tetrahedral and B octahedral positioning.


Maghemite forms by weathering or low-temperature oxidation of spinels containing iron(II) such as magnetite or titanomagnetite. Maghemite can also form through dehydration and transformation of certain iron oxyhydroxide minerals, such as lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite. It occurs as widespread brown or yellow pigment in terrestrial sediments and soils. It is associated with magnetite, ilmenite, anatase, pyrite, marcasite, lepidocrocite and goethite.[2]

Maghemite was named in 1927 for an occurrence at the Iron Mountain mine, northwest of Redding, Shasta County, California.[4] The name alludes to somewhat intermediate character between MAGnetite and HEMatite. It can appear blue with a grey shade, white, or brown.[6] It has isometric crystals.[3] Maghemite is formed by the topotactic oxidation of magnetite.

Cation distribution

There is experimental[7] and theoretical[8] evidence that Fe(III) cations and vacancies tend to be ordered in the octahedral sites, in a way that maximizes the homogeneity of the distribution and therefore minimizes the electrostatic energy of the crystal.

Electronic structure

Maghemite is a semiconductor with a bandgap of ca. 2 eV,[9] although the precise value of the gap depends on the electron spin.[8]


Maghemite exhibits ferrimagnetic ordering with a high Néel temperature (~950 K), which together with its low cost and chemical stability led to its wide application as a magnetic pigment in electronic recording media since the 1940s.[10]

Maghemite nanoparticles are also used in biomedicine, because they are biocompatible and non-toxic to humans, while their magnetism allows remote manipulation with external fields.[11]


  1. ^ Mineralienatlas
  2. ^ a b Anthony, John W.; Bideaux, Richard A.; Bladh, Kenneth W.; Nichols, Monte C., eds. (1997). “Maghemite”. Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF). III (Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides). Chantilly, VA, US: Mineralogical Society of America. ISBN 0962209732. 
  3. ^ a b Maghemite. Mindat
  4. ^ a b Maghemite. Webmineral
  5. ^ Cornell, R. M. and Schwertmann, Udo (2003) The Iron Oxides: Structure, Properties, Reactions, Occurrences and Uses. Wiley-VCH. p. 32. ISBN 3527302743.
  6. ^ Gaines, Richard V.; Skinner, H. Catherine W.; Foord, Eugene E.; Mason, Brian and Rosenzweig, Abraham (1997) Dana’s new mineralogy, John Wiley & Sons. pp. 229-230. ISBN 0471193100.
  7. ^ Greaves, C. (1983). “A powder neutron diffraction investigation of vacancy ordering and covalence in γ-Fe2O3“. J. Solid State Chem. 49 (3): 325. doi:10.1016/S0022-4596(83)80010-3. 
  8. ^ a b Grau-Crespo, Ricardo; Al-Baitai, Asmaa Y; Saadoune, Iman; De Leeuw, Nora H (2010). “Vacancy ordering and electronic structure of γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite): a theoretical investigation”. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 22 (25): 255401. doi:10.1088/0953-8984/22/25/255401. 
  9. ^ Litter, M. I. & Blesa, M. A. (1992). “Photodissolution of iron oxides. IV. A comparative study on the photodissolution of hematite, magnetite, and maghemite in EDTA media”. Can. J. Chem. 70 (9): 2502. doi:10.1139/v92-316. 
  10. ^ Dronskowski, R. (2010). “The little maghemite story: A classic functional material”. ChemInform. 32 (25): no. doi:10.1002/chin.200125209. 
  11. ^ Pankhurst, Q A; Connolly, J; Jones, S K; Dobson, J (2003). “Applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine”. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 36 (13): R167. doi:10.1088/0022-3727/36/13/201. 

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